The 14.5% infant mortality rate decline from 11.7 to 10.0 in African American infants in Medicaid expansion states was more than twice that in non–Medicaid expansion states (6.6%: 12.2 to 11.4; P = .012). Greater political will is also essential to undoing the legacy of racism in the United States, which is a contributing factor in maternal and infant mortality among African Americans. This may partly be due to differing quality of prenatal care. NOTE: The information regarding Infant mortality rate - total (deaths/1,000 live births) on this page is re-published from the CIA World Factbook 2018. News Release. One of the wealthiest countries in the world, the U.S. has fallen behind and now ranks 32 nd in maternal mortality and 33rd in infant mortality out of the 36 wealthiest nations. An alternative approach proposed by Michael Lu and Neal Halfon posits that racial disparities reflect altogether different developmental trajectories.38 That is, the social and economic forces of institutional racism set African American and non-Hispanic white women on distinct life tracks, with long-term consequences for their health and the health of their future children. The infant mortality rate in Oklahoma is 6.9, the fifth-highest in the United States . ↩. Despite this progress, however, researchers and practitioners need better data on health disparities and a more systematic, continual review of maternal and infant deaths in order to develop prevention efforts and quality improvement programs. The overall infant mortality rate in 2013 was 7.2 deaths per 1000 live births, but for Black infants, the rate … “For African-American women, these rates are two times higher than the rates for non-Hispa… Given the United States’ climate of racial inequality, African American women are more likely to experience stress during sensitive periods in early life and to be chronically exposed to stress. Nearly all states have racial disparities when it comes to infant mortality, but Wisconsin has the nation’s highest gap between white and black babies. African American women of all backgrounds—including Garner and Williams—share experiences of racial and gender discrimination. Infant Mortality Rates (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011), available at, U.S Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, “Infant Mortality and African Americans,” available at, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Table 10: Infant, neonatal, postneonatal, fetal, and perinatal mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2013,” available at, Lu and Halfon, “Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes.”, Margaret A. Harper and others, “Racial disparity in pregnancy-related mortality following a live birth outcome,”, California Newsreel, “How Racism Impacts Pregnancy Outcomes.”, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health, “Prenatal care and tests,” available at, Joyce A. Martins and others, “Births: Final Data for 2006” (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009), available at, T.J. Matthew, Marian F. MacDorman, and Fay Menacker, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 1999 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set” (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002), available at, Mayo Clinic, “Premature birth,” available at, Kirsten Wisborg and others, “A prospective study of smoking during pregnancy and SIDS,”, Laurie F. Beck and others, “Prevalence of selected maternal behaviors and experiences, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 1999,”, James R. Roberts and others, “The Role of Obesity in Preeclampsia,”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report—United States, 2011” (2011), available at, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, “New York City, 2008–2012, Severe Maternal Morbidity” (2016), available at, Hamisu M. Salihu and others, “Extreme Obesity and Risk of Stillbirth Among Black and White Gravidas,”, Nia Hamm, “High Rates of Depression Among African-American Women, Low Rates of Treatment,” HuffPost, September 25, 2014, available at, R.L Goldenberg and others, “Medical, psychological, and behavioral risk factors do not explain the increased risk of low birth weight among black women,”, Jamila Taylor and Christy M. Gamble, “Suffering in Silence: Mood Disorders Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women of Color” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2017), available at, Hamm, “High Rates of Depression Among African-American Women, Low Rates of Treatment.”, Gene Demby, “For People of Color, A Housing Market Partially Hidden From View,” NPR, Robert J. Sampson and Alix. 1 Center for American Progress | Mass Incarceration, Stress, and Black Infant Mortality Mass Incarceration, Stress, and Black Infant Mortality A Case Study in Structural Racism By Connor Maxwell and Danyelle SolomonJune 5, 2018 Infant mortality and mass incarceration are major issues affecting the black community. (see text box) Women in the United States are two to three times more likely to die than Canadian women in the maternal period—from the start of pregnancy to one year after delivery or termination.10 Similarly… The overall infant mortality rate across the U.S. is 5.7 out of every 1,000 live births. “African-American women have disproportionately high rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight and infant mortality,” Parker Dominguez said. Laurel Wamsley, “Erica Garner, Who Became An Activist After Her Father’s Death, Dies,” NPR, December 30, 2017, available at, Katie Mitchell, “After Erica Garner’s Death, We Need To Talk About How Maternal Mortality Affects Black Women,” Bustle, It is important to note that not all people facing these issues identify as women. Guinea-Bissau - 86 per 1,000. Program: Women Inspired Neighborhood Network Americans, through bold, progressive ideas, as well as strong Our aim is not just to change It reviews empirical literature on maternal and infant mortality, concluding that the greater prevalence of maternal health risk factors among African American women cannot account entirely for their higher mortality rates. According to the latest estimates, the US currently ranks 44th among 199 countries of all income levels, with an infant mortality rate of 5.6 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2015, about 3 times the rate observed for countries at the very top of the ranking . Table 13.
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