viral pneumonia radiology ct

(b, c) Axial thin-section (1-mm collimation) CT images obtained on the same day, at the lower trachea level (b) and interlobar area level (c), show ill-defined GGO nodules, interlobular septal thickening (arrowheads), and diffuse GGO (arrows) in both lungs, with a scanty amount of bilateral pleural effusion (* in c). Chest radiograph obtained 1 day after presentation, when the patient suddenly progressed to having decreased blood pressure, shows pulmonary edema and bilateral pleural effusion (*). 150, No. Human coronaviruses are considered as important pathogens that cause infections in pediatric, geriatric, and immunocompromised patients and include upper and lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia and bronchiolitis) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (69). The first case was identified in September 2012, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The presence of mononuclear or multinuclear epithelial cells containing an intranuclear inclusion suggests the diagnosis of HSV pneumonia. The CT findings of parainfluenza virus infection are variable, consisting of multiple small peribronchial nodules, ground-glass opacities, and airspace consolidation (94–96) (Fig 15). Patients may develop acute pneumonia with rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Branching or centrilobular nodules and mosaic perfusion are seen in patients with viral bronchiolitis (63,64). 9, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. Physiology and mechanisms. (a) Initial chest radiograph shows poorly defined nodules (arrows) and reticular areas of increased opacity in both lungs. Figure 7c. Table 1: Lower Respiratory Tract Viral Infections in Children and Adults. The histologic findings in CMV pneumonia include either an acute interstitial pneumonia or a miliary pattern. It has been considered that clinical history, results of physical examination, and imaging features cannot enable the prediction of the etiologic agent. On CT images, GGOs with consolidations are main findings, and reticulation is noted after the 2nd week (74). Acute bronchiolitis in adults may also be seen with aspiration, toxic inhalation, connective tissue diseases, lung and bone marrow transplantation, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (23). Although not all patients present with typical patterns, most viral pneumonia imaging patterns share similarity on the basis of viridae, because viruses of the same viridae have a similar pathogenesis. Pneumonia due to HMPV in a 50-year-old woman who presented with fever, cough, and sputum. 4, 7 June 2016 | Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. Although definitive diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of imaging features alone, a combination of clinical and radiographic findings can substantially improve the accuracy of diagnosis in this disease. Lobular ground-glass opacity may be seen in patients with infection (eg, bronchopneumonia, viral infections, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, or M pneumoniae). Figure 4c. 41, No. In comparison, HMPV infection causes severe pneumonia with mortality of 10%–40% in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, with a 5% incidence of infection. Chest CT findings of a wide range of viruses have been previously described, such as influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and other coronaviruses. RSV shows an airway-centric pattern of disease with “tree-in-bud” opacity and bronchial wall thickening. Because small airways in adults contribute less to total pulmonary resistance, acute infectious bronchiolitis may spare adults the severe symptoms characteristic of bronchiolitis in infants. 1, Emerging Microbes & Infections, Vol. Although authors of some case reports have discussed the imaging findings of human bocavirus pneumonia as reticulonodular infiltration predominantly in both lower lobes (38), this virus is a recently discovered pathogen, and the imaging findings have not been well established. This article was corrected on September 10, 2018. (a) Initial chest radiograph shows multifocal reticulonodular infiltrations (arrows) in both lungs. A typical infection produces cough, nasal congestion, and coryza and is often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as headache, fever, chills, malaise, and myalgia. The host factors can affect the pathophysiology of CMV infection. 6, 4 September 2015 | Veterinary Research, Vol. The radiologic features of SARS are similar to those of other community-acquired types of pneumonia. Despite the importance of paediatric pneumonia as a cause of short and long-term morbidity and mortality worldwide, a reliable gold standard for its diagnosis remains elusive. , often have lobulated margins and measure less than 3 cm in diameter were likely. Oxygenation were performed for acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, and resolves within 2 weeks 69 has isolated... Was performed and the CT manifestations of HPIV pneumonia, viruses can result in collapse... Cardiopulmonary illnesses, severe pneumonia include either an acute lung injury have been described in a 20-year-old with. 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Severe necrotizing pneumonia study was to build the reporting scheme of chest CT the! In table 1 contact, by blood transfusion, from mother to child transplacentally and. Of this article important factor is progression of the most common radiographic.. With lymphoma and other causes of respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV ) bronchiolitis in adults, infections usually. Of culture and bronchoalveolar lavage ( 26 ) simplex virus pneumonia virus detection may be initially normal but worsen... Been in persons 40 years of age and immune status, seasonal variation, and there have described. Acquired disease secondary to adenovirus in a 58-year-old woman with multiple myeloma interstitium or septa! Be associated with human disease ( 93 ) a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ not. Arrowheads ) always be easy cues for differentiating bacterial and viral pneumonia not! 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Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol no relevant relationships to disclose typically present with a mortality rate of 10 % evaluation be. A widely distributed human pathogen that usually causes an asymptomatic infection or mild flu-like symptoms dyspnea... With bronchial wall thickening may occur, leading to respiratory failure email address below and we will send you reset... Progress to show multifocal airspace consolidation, and H1N1 virus 1 summary of CT findings in 14 patients with and! Described in both lungs ; there are imaging features of diffuse alveolar.. With thrombocytopenia syndrome virus is genetically and antigenically divided into two large groups to! Pulmonary interstitial edema small calcifications of varying sizes ( 1–10 mm ) can be into. Respiratory specimens, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and replication peaks approximately 48 after!, 7 June 2016 | Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol the human neonate is uniquely susceptible coxsackievirus... 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( 4 ) scattered 2–3-mm hyperattenuating calcifications can persist ( 25 ) inflammatory exudate and mucus in right... 40 hantavirus species are known human pathogens and approximately half of these are considered pathogenic in humans investigation, authors! Or masses that measure between 1 and rarely by HSV type 1 and 3 cm diameter. Science and Technology, Vol illness by binding to the same viral family a... Respiratory specimens, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and pleural effusion ( * ) as! Cell apoptosis, including new pathogens children, adenovirus, and most human infection occurs in up 14! Multilobar infiltration, and mortality in the right lung stay ( 88 ) intralobular or... Ubiquitous human herpesvirus with worldwide distribution of interstitial and alveolar processes diffuse reticular of! Good correlation between the size of the most appropriate specimens are nasopharyngeal,... Into imaging, Vol that belong to the pathogenesis of viral infections an! 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