causes of infant mortality in developing countries

The New England Journal of Medicine stated that "The lowest mortality rates occur among infants weighing 3,000 to 3,500 g (6.6 to 7.7 lb). The majority of these deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where the child mortality rate is 175 per 1000 (compared to 6 per 1000 in industrialized countries). Non-clinical interventions are fundamental and complementary to recent global and national efforts to scale up preventive and treatment clinical interventions (see the right-hand side of Figure 3). One reason why we do not see progress is that we are unaware of how bad the past was.In 1800 the health conditions of our ancestors were such that 43% of the world's newborns died before their 5th birthday. These types of non-clinical interventions are depicted in the second cluster of policies, located on the left-hand side of Figure 3. Diarrhoeal Disease The targeted population of these policies are disease-related: interventions focussing on diarrhoea are commonly aimed at mothers of young children, while those focussinged on respiratory infections often contained health worker training and education components. Drinking water that has been contaminated by fecal material or other infectious organisms can cause life-threatening diarrhea and vomiting in infants. About 15 percent of child mortality deaths are caused by pneumonia. The size of policy effectiveness is heterogenous. These types of non-clinical interventions are depicted in the first column on the left-hand side of Figure 3, and are often enhanced by being combined with other policies. In least-developed countries (LDC) a primary cause of infant mortality is poor quality of water. The issue of maternal death in developing countries is an often unaddressed and urgent need. Second, policies that aim at promoting behavioural change, primarily through information and education. I recently conducted with Maureen Seguin what  is, to our knowledge, the first systematic review on non-clinical non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries. The results of our study show a relative dearth of research on respiratory infections, compared to those on diarrhoeal diseases: while over 30 studies were conducted on diarrhoea diseases, only seven were carried out for respiratory infections. Overall, we have identified two general policy strategies with regard to non-clinical interventions against diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases: first, policies that aim at enhancing supply-side capabilities in the area of material resources and/or infrastructure. October 2013 Vaccinations, adequate nutrition and increasing education will all help to decrease the levels of child mortality. More than half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third occur in South Asia. The death of an infant before the age of 1 Can be naturally or medically caused The baby can be very healthy and die from an accident A developing country is a country that is poverty stricken that seeks a rise in socioeconomic level. 5 Globally, the causes revolve around problems of prematurity, birth complications, neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, malnutrition, and HIV. Other countries are considered to be fragile in which there is a maternal mortality rate of 1 in 54 women. Pneumonia Unicef (2012), 'Levels and Trends in Child Mortality', (New York: United Nations Children's Fund). Child mortality rates are decreasing, but there is still work to be done. Miguel Niño-Zarazúa is a Research Fellow at UNU-WIDER, WIDERAngle newsletter Non-Hispanic Black mothers experience the highest infant mortality rate among all racial and ethnic groups (10.97 infant deaths per 1,000 live births), as well as the highest rates of preterm birth (delivery before 37 weeks of gestation) and low birth weight, both of which are leading causes of infant … The below strategies should follow to reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) in the developing countries like Bangladesh: A.           The Lancet, 375, 1969-87. Life Expectancy: Over the years, life expectancy has increased in developing countries due to … Each year, diarrhea kills 760,000 children under the age of 5. Zimbabweis one of the many countries that for years existed under the governance of the British monarch and Union Jack. 20–38% of deaths in the first 48 hours of life are attributed to … Things like poverty, a lack of access to quality healthcare, and cultural practices are causing maternal mortality rates in developing countries to be unnecessarily high (“Leading and underlying causes of maternal mortality” 1). While the level of infant mortality dropped in developing countries from 106 per 1000 live births in 1970-75 to 91 by 1980-85, the UN Population Division still estimates that the infant mortality rate in those countries will be close to 60/1000 live births in the year 2000. ... you don't see mortality reduction,” Bustreo explained. Policy strategies varied by target group, but included group discussion, demonstrations, participatory action learning exercises, flash card displays, folk songs, role playing, a comic story session, and games. The reduction in the excess mortality of the poorer classes from other causes (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) Malaria is preventable through the use of mosquito nets and levels of deaths caused by malaria are decreasing. Photo: Flickr, “The Borgen Project is an incredible nonprofit organization that is addressing poverty and hunger and working towards ending them.” Water quality interventions to remove microbial contaminants—either at source or in the household—are frequently paired with the provision of improved water storage vessels. Recent estimates suggest that nearly 80 per cent of under-five deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and about half of the deaths, in one of five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, and China (Black et al. Infant mortality is an indicator of how developed a … In absolute terms, this means a reduction from 12 to 6.9 million in the number of children dying every year (Unicef 2012). For example, while in Norway there are 218 doctors, nurses and midwives to serve 10,000 people, that ratio is 1 per 10,000 in Somalia. The U.N. has adopted as a prime objective the approximate halving of the global level of infant mortality before the year 2000 (U.N., 1981). The infant mortality rate in developing countries can be reduced by training health workers and midwives to provide mothers and babies with the lifesaving support they need to survive. 2. Black, Robert E., et al. again calls more for a thorough cultural transformation of the least privileged social categories than for the discovery of new therapies or increased expenditure on hospitals. Many of the diseases that kill children younger than 5-years-old are caused by lack of access to healthcare facilities, improper hygiene and sanitation, unclean water and not enough food, and low levels of education and information. Pneumonia and diarrhoea alone lead to 1.6 and 1.3 million child deaths per year respectively, amounting to almost 3 million deaths in total. Malaria https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/newborns-reducing-mortality In developing countries, stillbirths occur at a rate of about 13 per 1,000 births and early infant deaths at a rate of nine per 1,000 live births—even when women receive antenatal care and deliver in hospitals prepared to handle obstetrical and newborn complications. A large number of interventions involve sanitation enhancements combined with hygiene education or promotion aspects; for instance, policies that combined handwashing, hygiene education, and soap provision. It can be treated with rehydration zinc supplements. The good news is that there is evidence of a decline in incidence and mortality rates—due to diarrhoea and pneumonia—among young children in developing countries. Policies often include strategies to educate mothers on how to recognize pneumonia and to provide appropriate supportive measures. And the United States Foreign Assistance Act stipulates the reduction of infant mortality as a key criterion by which to assess a country’s commitment to the development process. 6 In the US, the five leading causes of infant mortality include low birth weight (LBW), birth defects, maternal peripartum … So, what works against preventable and treatable childhood diseases?            treatable childhood diseases in developing countries? Several policies proved to be more or less effective according to age.            365-66. Subsequent to the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economi… Those who are malnourished have weaker immune systems and are therefore at a higher risk of dying from pneumonia. Upon independence, however, local conflicts within the new government allowed safety and infrastructure to become rapidly compromised. More than half of maternal deaths occur in fragile and humanitarian settings. What Can Experiments Tell Us About How to Improve Governance? There are significant racial disparities in infant mortality rates in the United States. First, mortality rates have continued to come down in Africa despite falling income,4indicating that mortality decline can take place independent of income growth. Diarrhea then leads to severe dehydration, which leads to death. This can happen with increased access to healthcare facilities and increased prenatal visits. Additional age-disaggregated research is needed to clarify whether multi-faceted policies are more effective than single-focus interventions, as applied to samples consisting of young children. It is caused by unclean drinking water, contaminated food or person-to-person contact and poor hygiene. Hoddinott, John, et al. Assessing ‘what works’ in tackling the main cause of child morbidity and mortality is thus fundamental for effective policy actions. RDS remains one of the most common causes of the 3 million annual neonatal deaths in the developing world. In 2013, pneumonia killed an estimated 935,000 children under the age of 5. The six most preventable causes of death for children younger than 5 are: Newborn infections, malaria, sepsis, measles (13% of deaths) Childhood malnutrition is an underlying cause of 45% of all deaths among children younger than 5, … a sanitation policy coupled with water quality improvements) were not necessarily more effective than interventions with a single focus. Since diarrhea leads to malnourishment, those who are already weakened by the disease are likely to contract it again. In Africa, a child dies every minute from malaria, a disease caused by parasites. 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