harappan civilization wikipedia

It has been noted that the courtyard pattern and techniques of flooring of Harappan houses has similarities to the way house-building is still done in some villages of the region. The association of the IVC with the city-dwelling Dasyus remains alluring because the assumed timeframe of the first Indo-Aryan migration into India corresponds neatly with the period of decline of the IVC seen in the archaeological record. ", Derenko: "The spread of these new technologies has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-European languages in southern Asia. The discovery of the advanced, urban IVC, however, changed the 19th century view of early Indo-Aryan migration as an "invasion" of an advanced culture at the expense of a "primitive" aboriginal population to a gradual acculturation of nomadic "barbarians" on an advanced urban civilisation, comparable to the Germanic migrations after the Fall of Rome, or the Kassite invasion of Babylonia. It is also unknown if they reflect proto-Dravidian or other non-Vedic language(s). However, the absence of a Bronze Age in South India, contrasted with the knowledge of bronze making techniques in the Indus Valley cultures, calls into question the validity of this hypothesis. ][citation needed]. Harappan civilization Harappan civilization. Distinctive seals were used, among other applications, perhaps for identification of property and shipment of goods. There are some circular stamp seals with geometric designs, but lacking the Indus script which characterised the mature phase of the civilisation. The controversial Harappa male torso (left). They followed a system of centralized administration. [169][170], Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel have disputed this finding, pointing out that Rao et al. The Harappan period characterised by seals, beads, weights, stone blades and baked bricks is called as the Mature Harappan culture. Between 400 and as many as 600 distinct Indus symbols[166] have been found on seals, small tablets, ceramic pots and more than a dozen other materials, including a "signboard" that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. Including its predecessor and successor cultures, Early Harappan and Late Harappan, the Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from roughly the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. [47] Masson was impressed by the site's extraordinary size and by several large mounds formed from long-existing erosion. Lothal-layout-en.svg 574 × 390; 16 KB. Subsequent material culture was typically characterised by temporary occupation, "the campsites of a population which was nomadic and mainly pastoralist" and which used "crude handmade pottery. Introduction of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilisation, also know as Indus Valley Civilization We get an account of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization) from the analysis of the ruins found at different places of the Indus valley and Mesopotamia. Late Harappan civilization 1500bc map.svg 701 × 894; 1.89 MB. [15] Furthermore, rates of cranio-facial trauma and infection increased through time demonstrating that the civilisation collapsed amid illness and injury. [135][136], The Indus civilisation's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. So the purpose of the Citadel is still unclear. That said, the vast majority of people lived in rural areas. [157] Today, the Dravidian language family is concentrated mostly in southern India and northern and eastern Sri Lanka, but pockets of it still remain throughout the rest of India and Pakistan (the Brahui language), which lends credence to the theory. According to the excavation done at Harappa, a text was found over clay and stone tablets which were carbon dated between 3300-3200 BCE. The symbols that accompany the images vary from seal to seal, making it impossible to derive a meaning for the symbols from the images. The Harappan Civilisation has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BC. Materials from distant regions were used in the cities for constructing seals, beads and other objects. al. In sharp contrast to this civilisation's contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, no large monumental structures were built. He dated the Harappa ruins to a period of recorded history, erroneously mistaking it to have been described earlier during Alexander's campaign. This move away from simplistic "invasionist" scenarios parallels similar developments in thinking about language transfer and population movement in general, such as in the case of the migration of the proto-Greek speakers into Greece, or the Indo-Europeanisation of Western Europe. An extensive canal network, used for irrigation, has however also been discovered by H.-P. Script is rare and confined to potsherd inscriptions. You can read NCERT notes for Ancient History for UPSC from the link below: … ", Wright: "The Indus civilisation is one of three in the 'Ancient East' that, along with Mesopotamia and Pharaonic Egypt, was a cradle of early civilisation in the Old World (Childe, 1950). Lichtenstein,[115] the Mature Harappan Civilisation was "a fusion of the Bagor, Hakra, and Kot Diji traditions or 'ethnic groups' in the Ghaggar-Hakra valley on the borders of India and Pakistan". [127] Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind of combs (kakai), the use of collyrium and a special three-in-one toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have similar counterparts in modern India. People stopped living in many cities. The Lost River. To install click the Add extension button. In February 2006 a school teacher in the village of Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu discovered a stone celt (tool) with an inscription estimated to be up to 3,500 years old. [184] Historians such as Heinrich Zimmer and Thomas McEvilley believe that there is a connection between first Jain Tirthankara Rishabhanatha and the Indus Valley civilisation. Harappan Civilization (also Indus Valley civilization), an archaeological culture that flourished from the middle of the third millennium B.C. Periods 4 and 5 are not dated at Harappa. However, due to the sparsity of evidence, which is open to varying interpretations, and the fact that the Indus script remains undeciphered, the conclusions are partly speculative and largely based on a retrospective view from a much later Hindu perspective. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. Harappa led by Went-Antu is a custom civilization created by Tomatekh, with contributions from janboruta, Leugi, sukritact and regalmanemperor. This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. cannot distinguish linguistic systems from non-linguistic ones. [59] By 2002, over 1,000 Mature Harappan cities and settlements had been reported, of which just under a hundred had been excavated,[60][12][61][62] mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers and their tributaries; however, there are only five major urban sites: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Dholavira, Ganeriwala and Rakhigarhi. Stone sculptures were deliberately vandalised, valuables were sometimes concealed in hoards, suggesting unrest, and the corpses of animals and even humans were left unburied in the streets and in abandoned buildings. A Day in the Life of Maya of Mohenjo-daro. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. [124] The Harappans also made various toys and games, among them cubical dice (with one to six holes on the faces), which were found in sites like Mohenjo-daro. Rise and Fall Gathering Storm New Frontier Pass Overview Civilizations Technologies Districts All Games. [54] Expropriating Harappa for the ASI under the Act, Marshall directed ASI archaeologist Daya Ram Sahni to excavate the site's two mounds. Further, infectious diseases spread faster with denser living conditions of both humans and domesticated animals (which can spread measles, influenza, and other diseases to humans). [179] Despite the criticisms of Marshall's association of the seal with a proto-Shiva icon, it has been interpreted as the Tirthankara Rishabhanatha by Jains and Vilas Sangave. (2008) "Mehrgarh Neolithic". [citation needed], These chert weights were in a ratio of 5:2:1 with weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units, with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia, and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0.871 . This figure has been variously identified. 1995. [177][178], One Indus Valley seal shows a seated figure with a horned headdress, possibly tricephalic and possibly ithyphallic, surrounded by animals. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). Sir John Marshall reacted with surprise when he saw these two statuettes from Harappa:[129], When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric; they seemed to completely upset all established ideas about early art, and culture. ", Sen: "The so-called lost-Saraswati controversy has reignited the debate about the end of the Harappan civilization and the beginning of the Vedic civilization of the Ganges. The Cemetery H culture may be the manifestation of the Late Harappan over a large area in the region of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture its successor. The residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east, where they established smaller villages and isolated farms. [9] As a result the Ganges Valley settlement gained prominence and Ganges cities developed.[10]. An aspect of this arrangement was the additional requirement to hand over to the Company any historical artifacts acquired during his travels. Regarding the red jasper torso, the discoverer, Vats, claims a Harappan date, but Marshall considered this statuette is probably historical, dating to the Gupta period, comparing it to the much later Lohanipur torso. ", Wright: "Five major Indus cities are discussed in this chapter. 11,786 Pages. "[215][an] According to Jim Shaffer there was a continuous series of cultural developments, just as in most areas of the world. Two other realistic statuettes have been found in Harappa in proper stratified excavations, which display near-Classical treatment of the human shape: the statuette of a dancer who seems to be male, and a red jasper male torso, both now in the Delhi National Museum. The purpose of the citadel remains debated. Although some houses were larger than others, Indus Civilisation cities were remarkable for their apparent, if relative, egalitarianism. ", Fisher: "Such an "agricultural revolution" enabled food surpluses that supported growing populations. The most recent volume republished photos taken in the 1920s and 1930s of hundreds of lost or stolen inscriptions, along with many discovered in the last few decades; formerly, researchers had to supplement the materials in the Corpus by study of the tiny photos in the excavation reports of Marshall (1931), MacKay (1938, 1943), Wheeler (1947), or reproductions in more recent scattered sources. [66] Following a chance flash flood which exposed a portion of an archaeological site at the foot of the Bolan Pass in Balochistan, excavations were carried out in Mehrgarh by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige and his team. [citation needed], A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in Banawali, which was probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is still used in some parts of India). This deity has been compared to the Mesopotamian bull-man Enkidu. The small surplus produced in these small communities did not allow development of trade, and the cities died out. "[206] However, there is greater continuity and overlap between Late Harappan and subsequent cultural phases at sites in Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh, primarily small rural settlements. [149], Jarrige notes that the people of Mehrgarh used domesticated wheats and barley,[150] while Shaffer and Liechtenstein note that the major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from two-row barley. They further noted that "the direct lineal descendents of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan plateau," with neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with chalocolithic. In the aftermath of the Indus Civilisation's localisation, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilisation. "[103][ad], The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from c. 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture.". They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. At its peak, the Indus was the most extensive of these ancient civilizations, extending 1,500 km (900 mi) up the Indus plain, with a core area of 30,000 to 100,000 km, Dyson: "The subcontinent's people were hunter-gatherers for many millennia. Games Movies TV Video. [16][17], The Harappan language is not directly attested, and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. Others have claimed on occasion that the symbols were exclusively used for economic transactions, but this claim leaves unexplained the appearance of Indus symbols on many ritual objects, many of which were mass-produced in moulds. David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion derives partially from the Indus Valley Civilisations. [215] The climate change which caused the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation was possibly due to "an abrupt and critical mega-drought and cooling 4,200 years ago," which marks the onset of the Meghalayan Age, the present stage of the Holocene.[216]. [225][226][227], Archaeological excavations indicate that the decline of Harappa drove people eastward. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Other cities emerging during the Urban period include Mohenjo-daro in the Lower Indus, Dholavira to the south on the western edge of peninsular India in Kutch, Ganweriwala in Cholistan, and a fifth city, Rakhigarhi, on the Ghaggar-Hakra. Gallego romero et al. According to Andrew Lawler, "excavations along the Gangetic plain show that cities began to arise there starting about 1200 BCE, just a few centuries after Harappa was deserted and much earlier than once suspected. (2014), there is strong archeological and geographical evidence that neolithic farming spread from the Near East into north-west India, but there is also "good evidence for the local domestication of barley and the zebu cattle at Mehrgarh. Doris Srinivasan has argued that the figure does not have three faces, or yogic posture, and that in Vedic literature Rudra was not a protector of wild animals. obtained with Indus signs. In 1842, Masson included his observations of Harappa in the book Narrative of Various Journeys in Baluchistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab. ", This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 00:10. The animal depicted on a majority of seals at sites of the mature period has not been clearly identified. [143], There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilisations as early as the middle Harappan Phase, with much commerce being handled by "middlemen merchants from Dilmun" (modern Bahrain and Failaka located in the Persian Gulf). [15], The Harappans had traded with ancient Mesopotamia, especially Elam, among other areas. [156] Finnish Indologist Asko Parpola concludes that the uniformity of the Indus inscriptions precludes any possibility of widely different languages being used, and that an early form of Dravidian language must have been the language of the Indus people. "[197], During the period of approximately 1900 to 1700 BCE, multiple regional cultures emerged within the area of the Indus civilisation. In real life, it is a ruined city in present-day Pakistan that was once part of the Indus Valley Civilization. As the monsoons kept shifting south, the floods grew too erratic for sustainable agricultural activities. [230] Harvard archaeologist Richard Meadow points to the late Harappan settlement of Pirak, which thrived continuously from 1800 BCE to the time of the invasion of Alexander the Great in 325 BCE.[215]. Some Thoughts on Bronze Age Water Transport in Oman and beyond from the Impressed Bitumen Slabs of Ra's al-Junayz", in A. Parpola (ed), South Asian Archaeology 1993, Helsinki, 1995, pp. [26][27][28][29][l] Recent geophysical research suggests that unlike the Sarasvati, whose descriptions in the Rig Veda are those of a snow-fed river, the Ghaggar-Hakra was a system of perennial monsoon-fed rivers, which became seasonal around the time that the civilisation diminished, approximately 4,000 years ago. [57] By 1924, Marshall had become convinced of the significance of the finds, and on 24 September 1924, made a tentative but conspicuous public intimation in the Illustrated London News:[21], "Not often has it been given to archaeologists, as it was given to Schliemann at Tiryns and Mycenae, or to Stein in the deserts of Turkestan, to light upon the remains of a long forgotten civilization. The present Ghaggar-Hakra valley and its tributary rivers are currently dry or have seasonal flows. In Harappan times, the Saraswati was a major river system flowing from the Siwaliks at least to Bahawalpur, where it probably ended in a substantial inland delta. Female figurine 1. Marshall identified the figure as an early form of the Hindu god Shiva (or Rudra), who is associated with asceticism, yoga, and linga; regarded as a lord of animals; and often depicted as having three eyes. [4], The Harappan Civilisation has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000  BC. The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-daro (Mohenjodaro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region. [47], Despite these reports, Harappa was raided even more perilously for its bricks after the British annexation of the Punjab in 1848–49. However, the lack of large-scale incision on the interfluve demonstrates that large, glacier-fed rivers did not flow across the Ghaggar-Hakra region during the Holocene. During the Early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE), similarities in pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments, etc. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East. "[103] They further note that "[t]he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP. [201] On the other hand, the period also saw a diversification of the agricultural base, with a diversity of crops and the advent of double-cropping, as well as a shift of rural settlement towards the east and the south. [223][224], There are archaeological evidences of major earthquakes at Dholavira in 2200 BCE as well as at Kalibangan in 2700 and 2900 BCE. According to Gangal et al. [209][210] This may indicate the introduction of new religious beliefs during this period, but the archaeological evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Cemetery H people were the destroyers of the Harappan cities. Aridification reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward. While the Indus Valley Civilisation is generally characterised as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions, this description has been challenged by Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel (2004)[167] who argue that the Indus system did not encode language, but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies, to symbolise families, clans, gods, and religious concepts. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. [citation needed] Some structures are thought to have been granaries. [151] Gangal agrees that "Neolithic domesticated crops in Mehrgarh include more than 90% barley," noting that "there is good evidence for the local domestication of barley." [128], A handful of realistic statuettes have been found at IVC sites, of which much the most famous is the lost-wax casting bronze statuette of a slender-limbed Dancing Girl adorned with bangles, found in Mohenjo-daro. In most cases they have a pierced boss at the back to accommodate a cord for handling or for use as personal adornment. At the height of the Indus valley civilization the subcontinent may have contained 4-6 million people." Clift et al., 2011, U-Pb zircon dating evidence for a Pleistocene Sarasvati River and capture of the Yamuna River, Harappan Civilisation and Rojdi, by Gregory L. Possehl and M.H. In their report on archaeological excavations at Rojdi, Gregory Possehl and M.H. With the movement to settled agriculture, and the emergence of villages, towns and cities, there was probably a modest rise in the average death rate and a slightly greater rise in the birth rate. The area of late Harappan period consisted of areas of Daimabad, Maharashtra and Badakshan regions of Afghanistan. Tradition affirms the existence here of a city, so considerable that it extended to Chicha Watni, thirteen, Guha: "The intense explorations to locate sites related to the Indus Civilisation along the Ghaggar-Hakra, mostly by the Archaeological Survey of India immediately after Indian independence (from the 1950s through the ‘70s), although ostensibly following Sir Aurel Stein’s explorations in 1942, were to a large extent initiated by a patriotic zeal to compensate for the loss of this more ancient civilisation by the newly freed nation; as apart from Rangpur (Gujarat) and Kotla Nihang Khan (Punjab), the sites remained in Pakistan.". [118], As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and the recently partially excavated Rakhigarhi, this urban plan included the world's first known urban sanitation systems: see hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilisation. [47] In 1829, Masson traveled through the princely state of Punjab, gathering useful intelligence for the Company in return for a promise of clemency. [238], Shahr-i-Sokhta, located in southeastern Iran shows trade route with Mesopotamia. These link "the so-called two major phases of urbanisation in South Asia". Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having "differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers. Profusely illustrated, and including the latest research by leading scholars. [65] Other international efforts at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa have included the German Aachen Research Project Mohenjo-daro, the Italian Mission to Mohenjo-daro, and the US Harappa Archaeological Research Project (HARP) founded by George F. [231], Previously, scholars believed that the decline of the Harappan civilisation led to an interruption of urban life in the Indian subcontinent. 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