isidore etymologiae latin
The Etymologiae is thus a patchwork of sources, often overlapping, sometimes cited, and other times not; often it was a second-hand reference, other times it was from his own memory. The Etymologiae(Etymologies) is a Latin work by Isidore of Seville (l. c. 560 – 636 CE), compiled in the early 7th century CE and published in its final form shortly after his death. It is a testament to Isidore’s enduring popularity that all of these major works, bar one on heresies, are still extant. " There are waters that cure eye injuries, or make voices melodious, or cause madness, or cure infertility. Encyclopédie fondée sur l'étymologie, divisée en 20 livres, rassemblant toutes les connaissances humaines, profanes et sacrées, antiques et chrétiennes, accessibles au VIIe s. Oeuvre posthume qui fut achevée et publiée par Braulion, disciple d'Isidore Definition. , In book II, dealing with dialectic and rhetoric, Isidore is heavily indebted to translations from the Greek by Boethius, and in book III, he is similarly in debt to Cassiodorus, who provided the gist of Isidore's treatment of arithmetic. Isidore was encouraged to write the book by his friend Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa. Femina, meaning woman, comes from femora/femina meaning thighs, as this part of the body shows she is not a man. The Etymologies organizes knowledge, mainly drawn from the classics, into twenty books: In Book I, Isidore begins with a lengthy section on the first of three subjects in the mediaeval Trivium, considered at the time the core of essential knowledge, grammar. This book contains St. Isidore's work translated from the Latin by Priscilla Throop with an index. On the other hand, Isidore names Aristotle (384-322 BCE) as a source more than a dozen times, even though he likely had never read Aristotle but borrowed the references from other works. Isidore of Seville was born around 560 in Spain, under the unstable rule of the Visigoths after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. , Book XIX covers ships including boats, sails, ropes and nets; forges and tools; building, including walls, decorations, ceilings, mosaics, statues, and building tools; and clothes, including types of dress, cloaks, bedding, tools, rings, belts and shoes. Isidore’s main source of authority was the Bible, which he quotes from almost 200 times in the Etymologiae. He mentions as prolific authors the pagan Varro and the Christians Origen and Augustine. Publication date 1911 Usage Public Domain Publisher Oxonii : E typographeo Clarendoniano Collection toronto Contributor Kelly - University of Toronto Language Latin. Ancient History Encyclopedia. For instance, from Book X we learn that the word for master (Latin dominus) is a derivation of the word for the house (domus) of which he is in charge. xlvii, to be discussed later, has headwords drawn from it. In 586, Reccared became king, and in 587 under Leander's religious direction he became a Catholic, controlling the choice of bishops. In the amphitheatre, Isidore covers those who fight with nets, nooses and other weapons. , "An editor's enthusiasm is soon chilled by the discovery that Isidore's book is really a mosaic of pieces borrowed from previous writers, sacred and profane, often their 'ipsa verba' without alteration," Wallace Lindsay noted in 1911, having recently edited Isidore for the Clarendon Press, with the further observation, however, that a portion of the texts quoted have otherwise been lost: the Prata of Suetonius, for instance, can only be reconstructed from Isidore's excerpts. The brothers Dardanus and Jasius emigrated from Greece, and Jasius came to Thrace, Dardanus to Phrygia, where he was the first ruler. The famous scholar Bede (c. 673-735 CE) was very familiar with the work. Indeed, one’s insight into anything is clearer when its etymology is known. , Through the Middle Ages Etymologiae was the textbook most in use, regarded so highly as a repository of classical learning that, in a great measure, it superseded the use of the individual works of the classics themselves, full texts of which were no longer copied and thus were lost. Etymologiae in English Etymologiae (Latin for " The Etymologies "), also known as the Origines (" Origins ") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life. Etymologiae. You are 100 % sure these questions can be answered by the most celebrated Latin encyclopaedia of the Middle Ages (and thus of all times) – the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville! Isidore describes what rhetoric is, kinds of argument, maxims, elocution, ways of speaking, and figures of speech. The Etymologies are thus "complacently derivative". In his works including the Etymologiae, Isidore quotes from around 475 works from over 200 authors. Leander was a powerful priest, a friend of Pope Gregory, and eventually he became bishop of Seville. [a] According to the prefatory letters, the work was composed at the urging of his friend Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa, to whom Isidore, at the end of his life, sent his codex inemendatus ("unedited book"), which seems to have begun circulating before Braulio was able to revise and issue it with a dedication to the late Visigothic King Sisebut.. , In 1472 at Augsburg, Etymologiae became one of the first books to be printed, quickly followed by ten more editions by 1500. He started to put together a collection of his knowledge, the Etymologies, in about 600, and continued to write until about 625. The sky is called caelum as it has stars stamped on to it, like a decorated pot (caelatus). After him succeeded his son Ericthonius, and then his grandson Tros, from whom the Trojans were named. ISIDORI HISPALENSIS EPISCOPI ETYMOLOGIARUM SIVE ORIGINUM LIBER V DE LEGIBVS ET TEMPORIBVS. , Book IX covers languages, peoples, kingdoms, cities and titles. In the theatre, comedy, tragedy, mime and dance are covered. Étymologies Isidore de Séville (saint, 0560?-0636) Titre principal : Etymologiae (latin) Langue : Latin Genre ou forme de l’œuvre : Œuvres textuelles Date : 063. Under the guidance of Leander, and Isidore after him, the Visigothic monarchy of Spain began its conversion to Catholicism. Isidore's treatment is as usual full of conjectural etymology, so a horse is called equus because when in a team of four horses they are balanced (aequare). The Etymologiae thrived in the cultural program of the Carolingians in the 8th and 9th centuries CE. The encyclopedia was also one of the very early printed works of medieval literature, first being printed in 1472 CE. The Etymologiae was an extremely important book for the transmission of knowledge from the ancient world in medieval Europe. Leander became Bishop of Seville c. 580 CE and was a personal friend of Pope Gregory I, even before his papal coronation. (Etymologiae I.xxix.2). License. Isidore’s etymologies are sometimes accurate, other times less so, and occasionally they are outlandish. A typical entry from Isidore’s Etymologiae on the origin of the Trojans: The Trojan nation was formerly named the Dardanian, from Dardanus. Garwood notes, "St Augustine's stance on the shape of the earth [spherical] was supported, albeit vaguely, by the most popular encyclopedist of the era, St Isidore of Seville". An idea of the quality of Isidore's etymological knowledge is given by Peter Jones: "Now we know most of his derivations are total nonsense (eg, he derives baculus, 'walking-stick', from Bacchus, god of drink, because you need one to walk straight after sinking a few)". Europe is separated from Africa by the Mediterranean, reaching in from the Ocean that flows all around the land. It was, indeed, a tempting choice. Because of the breadth of his learning, Isidore has often been called “the last scholar of the ancient world”. The first scholarly edition was printed in Madrid in 1599; the first modern critical edition was edited by Wallace Lindsay in 1911. Peter Jones, writing in the Daily Telegraph, compares The Etymologies to the Internet: ...five years ago Pope John Paul II compounded his misfortune by proposing (evidently) to nominate [Isidore] as the patron saint of the internet. This broad overview of topics provides useful background information for the aspiring Latinist. Very little is known with any certainty about Isidore himself. 9 Isidore’s Etymologiae at the school of Canterbury tions appear without exception on the right hand side, in the interpretamenta. He preserved the close ties to the Visigothic monarchy his brother had fostered and was a friend to king Sisebut (c. 565-621 CE), with whom he shared many intellectual interests. The knowledge of a word’s etymology often has an indispensable usefulness for interpreting the word, for when you have seen whence a word has originated, you understand its force more quickly. Isidore was very well-read, both in Christian and pagan authors, and he drew on both freely for material in the Etymologiae.  There are many kinds of water: some water "is salty, some alkaline, some with alum, some sulfuric, some tarry, and some containing a cure for illnesses. It was copied in huge numbers across Europe and over a thousand manuscripts survive. Isidore of Sevilleby Luis García (CC BY-SA). Metals include gold, silver, copper, iron, lead and electrum. Etymologiae was printed in at least ten editions between 1472 and 1530, after which its importance faded in the Renaissance. No ‘Leiden’ chapter-title names the Etymologies, and only the rather short miscellaneous ch. Its subject matter is extremely diverse, ranging from grammar and rhetoric to the earth and the cosmos, buildings, metals, war, ships, humans, animals, medicine, law, religions and the hierarchies of angels and saints. The electric ray (torpedo) is called that because it numbs (torpescere, like "torpid") anyone who touches it. Saint Isidore of Seville (c.560-636) was Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and has the reputation of being one of the great scholars of the early Middle Ages. The earliest is held at the St. Gall Abbey library, Switzerland, in the Codex Sangallensis: it is a 9th-century copy of books XI to XX. ISIDORE OF SEVILLE (d. 636), Etymologiae, Books I-XI i (of XX) with the correspondence between Isidore and Braulio, in Latin, DECORATED AND ILLUSTRATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM [ff.5-145 10th century, north-eastern France or southern Netherlands; ff.1-4 12th century, St Martin's, Tournai] 310 x 220mm. The word "net" (rete), is derived from retaining (retinere) fish, or perhaps, writes Isidore, from the ropes (restis) they are attached to.  Wallace Lindsay edited the first modern critical edition in 1911. Virgil is also cited more than 190 times throughout the work. This work is a complete English translation of the Latin Etymologies of Isidore, Bishop of Seville (c.560–636). His friend and colleague Braulio, who encouraged Isidore to write the Etymologiae, lists over a dozen major works published in his lifetime, as well as other minor works. The spider (aranea) is so called from the air (aer) that feeds it. The books that have appeared so far are XVII (in 1981), II (1983), IX (1984), XII (1986), XIX (1995), XIII (2004), XVIII (2007), III (2009), XI (2010), XX (2010), XVI (2011) and XIV (2011, the book under review). Isidore compiled the work between c.615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject matter.  Barney notes that orbis "refers to the 'circle' of lands around the Mediterranean, and hence to the total known extent of land. Prénom [modifier le wikicode] Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life. [c], Book XV covers cities and buildings including public buildings, houses, storehouses and workshops, parts of buildings, tents, fields and roads. …have been derived from the Etymologies of Isidore of Sevilla and from other Christian writers. Isidore distinguishes natural, civil, international, military and public law among others. Isidore compiled the work between c.615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject matter. Isidore's view of Roman law in book V is viewed through the lens of the Visigothic compendiary called the Breviary of Alaric, which was based on the Code of Theodosius, which Isidore never saw. Etymologiae is less well known in modern times, though the Vatican considered naming its author Isidore the patron saint of the Internet. Among the thousand-odd surviving manuscript copies is the 13th-century Codex Gigas; the earliest surviving manuscript, the Codex Sangallensis, preserves books XI to XX from the 9th century. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 15 Jun 2020. He derives the word medicine from the Latin for "moderation" (modus), and "sciatica" (sciasis) from the affected part of the body, the hip (Greek ἰσχία "ischia"). Related Content Due to his fame and reverence, Dante (c. 1265-1321 CE) afforded Isidore a place within the circle of the sun in Paradise in his Divine Comedy, a realm reserved for those who had lit up the world with their intellect. Lactantius is the author most extensively quoted in book XI, concerning man. Solinus, Servius, and Cassiodorus are not named once in the Etymologiae, and Pliny is named as a source only a handful of times. English translation by Patricia Throop (2005). But his translator Stephen Barney notes as remarkable that he never actually names the compilers of the encyclopedias that he used "at second or third hand", Aulus Gellius, Nonius Marcellus, Lactantius, Macrobius, and Martianus Capella. Etymologies, often very far-fetched, form the subject of just one of the encyclopedia's twenty books (Book X), but perceived linguistic similarities permeate the work. Clouds are called nubes as they veil (obnubere) the sky, just as brides (nupta) wear veils for their weddings. Barney further notes as "most striking" that Isidore never mentions three out of his four principal sources (the one he does name being Pliny): Cassiodorus, Servius and Solinus. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. I. Spain at this time was largely under the control of the Visigoths, a Germanic tribe who had settled there after generations of moving around Europe in search of a new homeland. Today, one internet connection serves precisely the same purpose..., Almost 1000 manuscript copies of Etymologiae have survived.  His influence also pertained to early medieval riddle collections such as the Bern Riddles or the Aenigmata of Aldhelm. He was cited by Dante Alighieri, quoted by Geoffrey Chaucer, and his name was mentioned by the poets Boccaccio, Petrarch and John Gower among others. Books XII, XIII and XIV are largely based on Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Solinus, whereas the lost Prata of Suetonius, which can be partly pieced together from what is quoted in Etymologiae, seems to have inspired the general plan of the work, as well as many of its details. These disciplines formed the backbone of any serious medieval education, hence their prime position at the opening of the Etymologiae. The Latin for buttocks is clunis as they are near the large intestine or colon (colum). One thing we can be certain about Isidore is that he was an extremely prolific writer. Last modified June 15, 2020. Ancient History Encyclopedia. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Written by Laurence Leech, published on 15 June 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Leech, L. (2020, June 15). Isidore mostly does not cite these sources, even when quoting from them at length. The world portrayed as a circle divided by a 'T' shape into three continents, Asia, Europe and Africa", https://gizmodo.com/the-patron-saint-of-the-internet-is-isidore-of-seville-1595023500, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Etymologiae&oldid=996724406, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Augustine, Jerome, Gregory the Great, Lactantius, Tertullian. Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.  He derives the word for letters (littera) from the Latin words for "to read" (legere) and 'road' (iter), "as if the term were legitera", arguing that letters offer a road for people who read. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ernst Robert Curtius & Willard R. Trask & Peter Godman. , An analysis by Jacques André of Book XII shows it contains 58 quotations from named authors and 293 borrowed but uncited usages: 79 from Solinus; 61 from Servius; 45 from Pliny the Elder. He drew upon both Antique and Christian authors to bring together much of the essential learning of … Its influence spread first from Spain to Gaul and Ireland and then to the rest of the continent. , Isidore was widely influential throughout the Middle Ages, feeding directly into word lists and encyclopaedias by Papias, Huguccio, Bartholomaeus Anglicus and Vincent of Beauvais, as well as being used everywhere in the form of small snippets.  Isidore distinguishes astronomy from astrology and covers the world, the sky and the celestial sphere, the zodiac, the sun, moon, stars, Milky Way, and planets, and the names of the stars. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. 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