child mortality rate 1900

During the first three decades of the century, public health, social welfare, and clinical medicine (pediatrics and obstetrics) collaborated to combat infant mortality (1). J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:1805-9. MMWR SEARCH  |  The infant mortality rate started a long slide from 165 per 1,000 in 1900 to 7 per 1,000 in 1997. National Center for Health Statistics. Save the babies: American public health reform and the prevention of infant mortality, 1850-1929. All MMWR HTML versions of articles are electronic conversions from ASCII text The infant mortality rate is usually expressed as the ratio of infant deaths per one thousand live births. DOWNLOADS  |  TABLE 1. Infant mortality holds a particular fascination because itis so rare in today’s world of on-demand modern medicine.   Social Disruptions Postneonatal mortality. Hyattsville, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, 1999. To develop effective strategies for the 21st century, studies of the underlying factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality should be conducted. Because reproductive tract infections (e.g., bacterial vaginosis) are associated with preterm birth, development of effective screening and treatment strategies may reduce preterm births. As death rates decline, life expectancy increases. The early part of the Industrial Revolution may have exacerbated these conditions. child mortality rates must automatically add to population and population ... By 1900, world popula-tion had doubled again, reaching 1.7 billion. Almost exactly the same as the historical sample discussed above. Chart and table of the U.S. infant mortality rate from 1950 to 2021.   Hull House Deaths: final data for 1997. An increasing proportion of infant deaths were attributed to perinatal causes and occurred among high-risk neonates, especially low birth weight (LBW) and preterm babies. This and earlier reports focused attention on the state of maternal health and led to calls for action by state medical associations (13). Official statistics relating to infant mortality in Belfast and Dublin for the period 1900–69 are analysed. Sometime between 1900 and 1910 mortality rates among blacks began to decline at all ages, especially in urban areas. By the 1920s, the integration of these services changed the approach to infant mortality from one that addressed infant health problems to an approach that included infant and mother and prenatal-care programs to educate, monitor, and care for pregnant women. Voices | Interactivity | Teacher's For children older than 1 year of age, the overall decline in mortality during the 20th century has been spectacular.   Middletown The current infant mortality rate for U.S. in 2021 is 5.614 deaths per 1000 live births, a 1.18% decline from 2020.; The infant mortality rate for U.S. in 2020 was 5.681 deaths per 1000 live births, a 1.17% decline from 2019. Download the data The highest number of deaths over the century was recorded in 1918 at the end of World War 1, 1918 also saw the outbreak of the Spanish Flu pandemic. Infant Mortality Rates in the US from 1900 to 2000. During the ensuing years, institutional practice guidelines and guidelines defining physician qualifications needed for hospital delivery privileges were developed. 1890 Census Contact GPO for current prices. More food meant healthier infants and mothers. Washington, DC: Children's Bureau, Social Security Administration, 1950. Child mortality rate of United States of America fell gradually from 23.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1970 to 6.5 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2019. For white men, life expectancy at birth rose from 48 years in 1900 to 74 years in 1996. Almost every 5th child born in that year died in childhood.Over the last decades we have seen a very rapid decline of child mortality globally. The discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents (e.g., sulfonamide in 1937 and penicillin in the 1940s) and the development of fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy and safe blood transfusions accelerated the declines in infant mortality; from 1930 through 1949, mortality rates declined 52% (4).   African Americans   Suburban Growth Although overall rates have plummeted, black infants are more than twice as likely to die as white infants; this ratio has increased in recent decades. Safer deliveries in hospitals under aseptic conditions and improved provision of maternal care for the poor by states or voluntary organizations led to decreases in maternal mortality after 1930. Some experts consider that the United States may be approaching an irreducible minimum in these areas. During the early to mid-1980s, the downward trend in U.S. infant mortality slowed (6). Child mortality rate of Canada fell gradually from 22 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1970 to 4.9 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2019.   Middletown III (National vital statistics report; vol 47, no. However, three factors indicate that this is unlikely. In 1900, infant mortality was 100 babies per 1,000 births. mortality worsened for infant and children. Life Expectancy, PBS Therefore, in the coming decades, public health programs will need to address the two leading causes of infant mortality: deaths related to LBW and preterm births and congenital anomalies. During the 1990s, a greater than 50% decline in SIDS rates (attributed to the recommendation that infants be placed to sleep on their backs) has helped to reduce the overall infant mortality rate (8). Montana E, Khoury MJ, Cragan JD, et al. This may partially be explained by improvements in medical knowledge that have led to a more comprehensive classification system.In 1915, people were dying in large numbers from infections, but by 2015, the most common causes of death were related to cancer, heart conditions or external causes.   Middletown IV. Prior to 1900, infant mortality rates of two and three hundred obtained throughout the world. Central heating meant that infants were no longer were exposed to icy drafts for hours. (National vital statistics reports, vol 47, no. Pediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1990;4:373-81. The extent to which lessons can be learned from history (or the study of history) justified on practical or utilitarian grounds is questionable. Loudon I. Death in childbirth: an international study of maternal care and maternal mortality, 1800-1950.   Professional Women Second, the United States has higher maternal and infant mortality rates than other developed countries; it ranks 25th in infant mortality (22) and 21st in maternal mortality (23). These graphics of U.S. mortality trends since 1900 highlight the differences in age-adjusted death rates and life expectancy at birth by race and sex; childhood mortality rates by age group; and trends in age-adjusted death rates for five selected major causes of death. In 2019, child mortality rate for Canada was 4.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. Vital statistics of the United States, 1973.   Infant Mortality American Indian/ Alaska Native infants have higher death rates than white infants because of higher SIDS rates.   Foreign Born in the mortality rates among persons one year of age and over between 1900 and 1935, the decrease in infant mor-tality during that period was sufficient to increase the expectation of life at birth by 4 years. Public Health Service. During the first four decades of this century mortality rates among American blacks declined substantially. But the Industrial Revolution contained the seeds of a complete reversal of the infant mortality rate. Diseases that had carried off thousands of children in 1900 were practically eliminated by 2000: diphtheria, and pertussis, measles. As a result, 40% of maternal deaths were caused by sepsis (half following delivery and half associated with illegally induced abortion) with the remaining deaths primarily attributed to hemorrhage and toxemia (2). Read the BBC summary of World War Two. Effective strategies to reduce unintended pregnancy, to eliminate exposure to unhealthy lifestyle factors, and to ensure that all women begin prenatal care early are important challenges for the next century. That is because a major determinant of life expectancy at birth is the child mortality rate which, in our ancient past, was extremely high, and this skews the life expectancy rate dramatically downward. Percentage reduction in infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality, by year -- United States, 1915-1997*. Rising standards of living, including improvements in economic and education levels of families, helped to promote health. Kleinman JC. Infant mortality skewed life expectancy away from how long someone could expect to live if she survived her childhood. Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. WHO/FRH/MSM/96.11. More clinically focused than reviews or audits, such "near miss" studies may explain why one woman or infant with a serious problem died while another survived. This report summarizes trends in reducing infant and maternal mortality in the United States, factors contributing to these trends, challenges in reducing infant and maternal mortality, and provides suggestions for public health action for the 21st century.   Inflation National Center for Health Statistics. Thus, the dramatic declines in infant and child mortality in the twentieth century were accompanied by equally stunning increases in life expectancy. Johnston RB Jr. Folic acid: new dimensions of an old friendship. Additional substantial decline in neonatal mortality will require effective strategies to reduce LBW and preterm births. Approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, including approximately three quarters among women aged less than 20 years. * Percentage reduction is calculated as the reduction from the first year of the time period to the last year of the time period. Efforts to reduce infant mortality focused on improving environmental and living conditions in urban areas (1). The early years from infancy through to about 15 was perilous, due to risks posed by disease, injuries, and accidents. Urban environmental interventions (e.g., sewage and refuse disposal and safe drinking water) played key roles in reducing infant mortality. By the early decades of the 1900s, a wide range of improvements begin the drive the infant mortality rate down. Environmental interventions, improvements in nutrition, advances in clinical medicine, improvements in access to health care, improvements in surveillance and monitoring of disease, increases in education levels, and improvements in standards of living contributed to this remarkable decline (1). Children's Bureau. Iyasu S, Becerra JE, Rowley DL, Hogue CJR. During the 1930s-1940s, hospital and state maternal mortality review committees were established. into HTML. In severe times, a majority of infants would die within one year. The legalization of induced abortion beginning in the 1960s contributed to an 89% decline in deaths from septic illegal abortions (15) during 1950-1973. The health of older children also improved. Diseases were untreatable, sometimes even unrecognized. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1989. McCormick MC. “ Prior to 1900, infant mortality rates of two and three hundred [per 1,000 births] obtained throughout the world. Health, United States, 1998, with socioeconomic status and health chart book. MMWR 1999;48:289-92. Life expectancy at birth is very sensitive to reductions in the death rates of children, because each child that survives adds many years to the amount of life in the population. (modems), 220k If similar calculations are made using the mortality rates in 1935 of children less than 6 years of age and the 1900 mortality rates for The child mortality rate, also under-five mortality rate, refers to the probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births. To Status report on the Childhood Immunization Initiative: reported cases of selected vaccine-preventable diseases--United States, 1996. In 1998, the infant mortality rate was 7.2 overall, 6.0 for white infants, and 14.3 for black infants. JAMA 1998;280:329-39. Trends in infant mortality attributable to birth defects--United States, 1980-1995. CDC. CDC. In this paper, which is based largely on the period 1900–60, it is shown that against expectation the links between maternal mortality and all components of infant mortality, including neonatal mortality, are very slight. In 1900, >3 in 100 children died between their first and 20th birthday; today, <2 in 1000 die. Infant Mortality Facts Infant Mortality Facts. For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq@cdc.gov. Factors associated with the transition to non-prone sleep positions of infants in the United States: the National Infant Sleep Position Study. Poor obstetric education and delivery practices were mainly responsible for the high numbers of maternal deaths, most of which were preventable (2). The bureau also advocated comprehensive maternal and infant welfare services, including prenatal, natal, and postpartum home visits by health-care providers. Infant mortality rates and maternal mortality rates have dramatically decreased. Chart and table of the China infant mortality rate from 1950 to 2021.   Middletown II The infant mortality rate started a long slide from 165 per 1,000 in 1900 to 7 per 1,000 in 1997. In 1900 in some U.S. cities, up to 30% of infants died before reaching their first birthday (1). These tools include quality prenatal care, ultrasounds, geneticscreening of the unborn child, neonatal hospital units, vaccinations, as wellas bet… A proponent of the Children's Bureau was Martha May Eliot (see box, page 851). Compared with the 1970s, the 1980s and 1990s have seen a lack of decline in maternal mortality and a slower rate of decline in infant mortality. Without a germ theory of disease, people did not take precautions to prevent the spread of infections. Milk pasteurization, first adopted in Chicago in 1908, contributed to the control of milkborne diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal infections) from contaminated milk supplies. Medical advances (including the use of antibiotics, oxytocin to induce labor, and safe blood transfusion and better management of hypertensive conditions during pregnancy) accelerated declines in maternal mortality. Environmental interventions, improvements in nutrition, advances in clinical medicine, improvements … New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. N Engl J Med 1985;312:80-90. RealVideo  The United States experienced an unprecedented decline in mortality during the twentieth century. These estimates are shown in the visualisation below.In 1960 child mortality was still 18.5%. MMWR 1997;46:667-71. Published by Aaron O'Neill, Sep 21, 2020 The child mortality rate of Brazil, for children under the age of five years, was 417 deaths per thousand births in the year 1900. the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. The percentage decline in postneonatal (age 28-364 days) mortality (66%) was greater than the decline in neonatal (age 0-27 days) mortality (40%). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby-Year Book, 1997. In addition, one fifth of all pregnant women and approximately half of women with unintended pregnancies do not start prenatal care during the first trimester. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MMWR 1998;47:773-7. In 2010, they could expect more than 30 additional years of life, with a … download RealPlayer, select the following icon. CDC. The overall mortality rate in the United States declined markedly over the 20th century, resulting in large gains in life expectancy. 23). In 1900, the average U.S. newborn could expect to live to 47.3 years of age. Birth weight and age-specific analysis of the 1990 US infant mortality drop: was it surfactant? Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation ( UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division ) at childmortality.org . The reduction in vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g., diphtheria, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis) has reduced infant morbidity and has had a modest effect on infant mortality (9).   Depression Indicators Researchers are examining "fetal programming"--the effect of uterine environment (e.g., maternal stress, nutrition, and infection) on fetal development and its effect on health from childhood to adulthood. Preconception health services for all women of childbearing age, including healthy women who intend to become pregnant, and quality care during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period are critical elements needed to improve maternal and infant outcomes (see box, page 856). At the same time, a shift from home to hospital deliveries was occurring throughout the country; during 1938-1948, the proportion of infants born in hospitals increased from 55% to 90% (14). Program | Trends of the Century | Viewer's   Women In 1900 the Belfast infant mortality rate, 153.1, was significantly lower than in Dublin, 169.5 per 1,000 livebirths but by 1969 the Dublin rate, 22.4, was less than that of Belfast, 29.5, and this position was evident in previous recent years. Since 1982, maternal mortality has not declined (16). 30333, U.S.A. Meckel RA. Declining fertility rates also contributed to reductions in infant mortality through longer spacing of children, smaller family size, and better nutritional status of mothers and infants (1). The 1933 White House Conference on Child Health Protection, Fetal, Newborn, and Maternal Mortality and Morbidity report (13) demonstrated the link between poor aseptic practice, excessive operative deliveries, and high maternal mortality. Infant Mortality More babies were born in hospitals, which were suddenly being cleaned up as the infectious nature of dirt became clear. From 1915 through 1997, the infant mortality rate declined greater than 90% to 7.2 per 1000 live births, and from 1900 through 1997, the maternal mortality rate declined almost 99% to less than 0.1 reported death per 1000 live births (7.7 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1997) (3) (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, drinking alcohol, unsafe sex practices, and poor nutrition) and inadequate intake of foods containing folic acid pose serious health hazards to the mother and fetus and are more common among women with unintended pregnancies. From 1950 through 1964, infant mortality declined more slowly (1). The top causes of death at the start of the 20th century were very different to those that we see today. (PHS)98-1232. The health of older children also improved. During 1939-1948, maternal mortality decreased by 71% (14). The slowdown in the infant mortality decline. WHO revised 1990 estimates of maternal mortality: a new approach by WHO and UNICEF. The higher risk for infant mortality among blacks compared with whites is attributed to higher LBW incidence and preterm births and to a higher risk for death among normal birthweight infants (greater than or equal to 5 lbs, 8 oz [greater than or equal to 2500 g]) (18). Vol I. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1954:258-9. In some U.S. cities, mortality rates were 30 percent. In good times, perhaps two hundred per thousand would die. MMWR 1999;47:705-7. The world made remarkable progress in child survival in the past three decades, and millions of children have better survival chances than in 1990—1 in 27 children died before reaching age five in 2019, compared to 1 in 11 in 1990. The chart shows a relatively small increase in deaths during World Wars 1 and 2, this is because the ONS doesn’t have records for the significant loss of life by the armed forces overseas. This partnership began with milk hygiene but later included other public health issues. Trends and outcomes after prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiac malformations by fetal echocardiography in a well defined birth population, Atlanta, Georgia, 1990-1994. and Life Expectancy. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. In 1900, 150 infants per 1,000 live births did not live past their first year. The following table lists the infant mortality rates in the United States from 1950 to 2010, according to year, race, and gestation period. Perhaps the greatest is the persistent difference in maternal and infant health among various racial/ethnic groups, particularly between black and white women and infants. Starting in 1900, infant mortality rates began to decline, decreasing 13 percent in the 1910s alone. Population growth continued to accelerate in the course of the present century, reaching a 1.5 per cent annual growth rate by 1950 and a peak rate Berg CJ, Atrash HK, Koonin LM, Tucker M. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1987-1990. The increase during World War 2 was mainly due to rising infant mortality at the time. During the 1990s, the increased use of assisted reproductive technology has led to an increase in multiple gestations and a concomitant increase in the preterm delivery and LBW rates (21). So great was the pre-modern loss of children's lives that anthropologists claim to have found groups that do not name children until they have survived a year. Infant mortality statistics from the 1997 period linked birth/infant death data set. CDC. ABOUT MMWR  |  how the data on infant mortality changes! RealVideo   Changes in infant, childhood, and maternal mortality over the decade of 1939-1948: a graphic analysis. See From 1915 through 1997, the infant mortality rate declined greater than 90% to 7.2 per 1000 live births, and from 1900 through 1997, the maternal mortality rate declined almost 99% to less than 0.1 reported death per 1000 live births (7.7 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1997) (3) (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Guide. MacDorman MF, Atkinson JO. The infant mortality rate would fluctute sharply according to the weather, the harvest, war, and epidemic disease. Maternal mortality rates were highest in this century during 1900-1930 (2). Type 508 Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. Health of Children Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:161-7. The current infant mortality rate for China in 2021 is 8.996 deaths per 1000 live births, a 3.22% decline from 2020.; The infant mortality rate for China in 2020 was 9.295 deaths per 1000 live births, a 3.13% decline from 2019. Epidemiological Drivers of Declining Mortality, 1900-2013. United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100. Life expectancy at birth rose by more than 30 years between 1900 and 2013 as the overall death rate fell at a relatively constant rate of about 1 percent per year. Although no reliable data exist, the rapid decline in infant mortality during earlier decades probably was not influenced by decreases in LBW rates because the decrease in mortality was primarily in postneonatal deaths that are less influenced by birthweight. National efforts to encourage reproductive-aged women to consume foods or supplements containing folic acid could reduce the incidence of neural tube defects by half (12). These studies should include efforts to understand not only the biologic factors but also the social, economic, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to maternal and infant deaths. Child mortality is the mortality of children under the age of five. CONTACT |  U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Unintended pregnancy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the mother and infant. Prior to 1900, infant mortality rates of 200 and 300 hundred per 1,000 live births were common throughout the world. United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100. 1946 National Health Service Act (came into effect on 05/07/1948) Read the full 1946 National Health Service Act (PDF) The long-term effects of LBW include neurologic disorders, learning disabilities, and delayed development (20). RSS From 1970 to 1979, neonatal mortality plummeted 41% (Table 1) because of technologic advances in neonatal medicine and in the regionalization of perinatal services; postneonatal mortality declined 14%. HOME  |  Am J Prev Med 1992;8:271-7. Food supplies were unreliable, impure, and so narrowly based as to cause nutrition problems. Infant mortality is the rate of infant deaths that occur in the first year of life. Willinger M, Hoffman H, Wu K, et al. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the electronic PDF version and/or   Stock Market During the late 1960s, after Medicaid and other federal programs were implemented, infant mortality (primarily postneonatal mortality) declined substantially (5). The explanation can be found by examining the immediate causes of maternal and neonatal deaths.   Recent Social Trends If turn-of-the-century infant death rates had continued, then an estimated 500,000 live-born infants during 1997 would have died before age 1 year; instead, 28,045 infants died (3). An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Inadequate programs during the 1950s-1960s to reduce deaths among high-risk neonates led to renewed efforts to improve access to prenatal care, especially for the poor, and to a concentrated effort to establish neonatal intensive-care units and to promote research in maternal and infant health, including research into technologies to improve the survival of LBW and preterm babies. Sewers were being installed in the cities. Although improvements in medical care were the main force for declines in infant mortality during the second half of the century, public health actions played a role. Infant Mortality Rates, 1950–2010. In: Advances in pediatrics. One reason why we do not see progress is that we are unaware of how bad the past was.In 1800 the health conditions of our ancestors were such that 43% of the world's newborns died before their 5th birthday. Hispanics of Puerto Rican origin have higher death rates than white infants because of higher LBW rates (19). Schoendorf KC, Kiely JL. Impact of multiple births on low birthweight--Massachusetts, 1989-1996. The tools of modern medicine have been sosuccessful in driving down infant mortality rates that it is easy to lose touchwith earlier more uncertain times for children. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1996; report no. Third, most of the U.S. population has infant and maternal mortality rates substantially lower than some racial/ethnic subgroups, and no definable biologic reason has been found to indicate that a minimum has been reached. Maternal mortality--United States, 1982-1996. Disclaimer   The child mortality rate in the United States, for children under the age of five, was 462.9 deaths per thousand births in 1800. The leading causes of maternal death are hemorrhage, including hemorrhage associated with ectopic pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension (toxemia), and embolism (17). This will be especially important in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in the health of infants. The basic facts about the secular decline of infant mortality in Europe have been known for nearly a century. Advances in prenatal diagnosis of severe central nervous system defects, selective termination of affected pregnancies, and improved surgical treatment and management of other structural anomalies have helped reduce infant mortality attributed to these birth defects (10,11). Reported by: Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. Impact of very low birthweight on the black-white infant mortality gap. In 1912, the Children's Bureau was formed and became the primary government agency to work toward improving maternal and infant welfare until 1946, when its role in maternal and child health diminished; the bureau was eliminated in 1969 (1). this lead to a rapid decline in ‘natality’ and consequently … First, scientists have believed that infant and maternal mortality was as low as possible at other times during the century, when the rates were much higher than they are now. Most births occurred at home with the assistance of midwives or general practitioners. Again, the researchers find very similar mortality rates across their sample of 20 different studies on hunter-gatherer societies from very different locations: The average infant mortality rate (younger than 1) was 26.8% and the average mortality before puberty, 48.8%. Pharoah POD, Morris JN. DISCLAIMER  |  (cable/T1). Despite these improvements in maternal and infant mortality rates, significant disparities by race and ethnicity persist. After 1750 there was progressive improvement in survival of older children (ages 3+), and mortality became concentrated in early childhood (ages 1 -2).However mortality of infants (in the first year of life) followed a more unusual trajectory, rising before 1750 and declining thereafter. Vital statistics of the United States, 1950. 20). (It’s interesting that the title suggests that even in early 1900’s the infant mortality rate … Infant mortality rate graph (IMAGE/PNG) Infant mortality rate used data (XLS) Key dates. 1939 – 1945 Second World War. Lying-in: a history of childbirth in America. World Health Organization. However, this shift was slow in rural areas and southern states. 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Including prenatal, natal, and maternal mortality rates and maternal mortality rates 200. 19 ) Mosby-Year book, 1997 syndrome ( SIDS ) and other causes welfare Services CDC! Woman or infant did not take precautions to prevent the spread of infections articles are conversions... Epidemic disease: Mosby-Year book, 1997 flaps its wings in different places at different times, perhaps hundred! The decade of 1939-1948: a graphic analysis in economic and education levels of families, helped to promote.. Downward trend in U.S. infant mortality at the start of the 1900s, a range. Minimum in these areas U.S. cities, mortality rates among blacks began to at. Expressed as the reduction from the first year of the time places at different times perhaps!

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